We can’t go on meeting like this – Part 7 Interactive Meetings

Run your meeting mastering the available forms of interaction

“I’m ready for my close-up Mr De Mille” (Sunset Boulevard)

Distraction

If you thought people could be distracted in a real meeting, then consider how much more scope there is for them to tune out when you’re working online. Events happening around them, constant interruptions, and the easy availability of alternative things to do on their computers often take the focus of attention away from the screen. With the participants largely invisible – even if each person is actively engaged, how are you to know? Without regular interactivity, you are flying blind, you are just hoping for the best. Interactivity proves that communication is taking place.

When planning interactions, imagine how you would interact within a face-to-face meeting.

Text chat

The chat facility typically operates alongside the virtual meeting, available for use at any time. Participants can use it to ask or answer questions or as a ‘back channel’ to pass public or private notes. Some facilitators may find this activity a little strange – after all, we would probably feel uncomfortable if people seated around a table passed messages to one other during a meeting. However, many participants find this channel of great use: they exchange contact details, links, thoughts and comments; they help to move the meeting along, without intervention by the facilitator.

Chat is a good option for questions requiring brief, open-ended responses. If you don’t want participants to ‘cheat’ by borrowing the opinions of the last person, ask participants to type in their comments but not press ‘send’ until told to.

Participants who have inhibitions about speaking up in a live meeting, may be more inclined to interact when text chat is available.

If you want to divide a meeting into sub-groups you might use virtual breakout rooms. Private one-to-one text chat may be an easier alternative if you choose to work in pairs.

Time constraints

A virtual (online) meeting room makes it easy to set timers and to specify the outputs you require of groups or individuals when they are producing something in text chat. In a physical space you might write the task in hand on a flipchart. In a virtual space, it is simple to type instructions into text chat or on to a slide or blank whiteboard.

Give participants time to review each other’s contributions.

You can normally save chat discussions so people can use them after the meeting has ended.

Ticks and crosses

Most systems provide a way for facilitators to obtain simple yes/no responses from participants, totalling up the responses automatically. Facilitators can use this mechanism to obtain confirmations (‘Can you hear me clearly?’, ‘Shall I move on?’) or to conduct simple polls (‘Have you used this system before?’, ‘Do you agree with this?’) Some more sophisticated systems let you set up multiple choice or multiple option questons to gather information or opinions in the same way.

Voice interaction

Participant audio is the best option for longer, open-ended responses (or questions) that would require too much typing to express in chat.

For participants to respond by voice, they must have microphones as well as headphones or speakers. This is not a costly problem to solve, because integrated headsets can be obtained for as little as £10. The advantages of using voice are obvious: the communication is more natural and spontaneous, and there is no need for typing. However, some moderation is required to avoid everyone speaking at once. Most systems use a ‘hands-up’ facility, which allows participants to signify that they want to speak. It is then up to the facilitator to ‘turn the mic on’ or otherwise allow the participant to speak.

Whiteboard

In the context of web conferencing, a whiteboard is a blank screen or a prepared slide, on to which participants can draw or type. Whatever is placed on the whiteboard can be seen by all participants. You can use whiteboards in a wide variety of ways:

  • for ice-breaking activities (‘Indicate on this map where you are located’);
  • for capturing expectations at the beginning of a session and then revisiting them at the end for listing participants’ ideas, flip chart-style (‘Where should we hold our sales convention this year?’);
  • for assessing how things are going (‘Draw a picture showing how you’re feeling about this topic’);
  • for structured questions (‘What are you hoping to gain from this meeting?’);
  • as a place where participants can paste screen shots from an application on their computer; these could include screen grabs of documents, spreadsheets and web pages.

To avoid everyone typing or drawing on top of each other, the facilitator can prepare a slide with sections allocated to each of the participants.

Instead of having participants type their responses, consider encouraging them to draw pictures instead.

Whiteboards can often be archived for use after the session. If the system won’t allow this, just make your own screen grab.

Consider asking experienced participants to take turns in annotating the whiteboard.

Polling and quizzing

Polls allow you to ask multiple-choice questions, to profile participants or to survey opinion. They are usually set up in advance, although most systems will allow you to modify or add new questions on the fly. An advantage of online polling is that you can obtain totalled-up responses instantly, allowing you to act immediately on the information.

Quizzes and surveys employed during a live session should be brief and advance the cause of the objectives for the meeting. Otherwise they are better deployed separately, either before or after the session.

Breakout rooms

Some systems provide you with the facility to allocate participants to groups, have them then undertake activities in those groups, monitor what is happening in each room, and then bring them back for a review in plenary. This process mirrors syndicate room activity in a physical conference suite and can be used for much the same purposes, for example:

  • For strategic planning or obstacle elimination.
  • Different groups can work with different content or using different tools (for example one might be doing SWOT analysis while another does Force Field Analysis).
  • If there are varying levels of seniority or functional expertise in a meeting, the session can be divided and different facilitators can moderate separate breakout rooms.
  • Participants can discuss different scenarios, using their own whiteboard to take notes.
  • You can conduct a number of action learning sets in parallel.

With a smaller group, say two to five participants, audio can be used more freely than in plenary. If you want, a spokesperson from each group can report to the larger group once everyone has moved back into the main room.

You may need to use a producer or co-facilitator to assist with the management. However responsibilities are divided, it is important for one of the facilitators to drop in regularly to provide guidance. It may pay to set up a template on the whiteboard in advance, to help direct the group.

Until they become practised, participants at virtual meetings tend not to follow instructions very well. When put into a virtual breakout room, often they will wait for the meeting leader to show up to reissue instructions or manage the tools for them. For participants who are “becalmed” there is usually a device for sending a call to the meeting host who receives a text message asking for help.

There is some evidence that small (3-5 participants), heterogeneous groups better.

When to interact

Most experts agree that participants will lose concentration in a virtual meeting unless they are required to interact in some way every three to five minutes. It goes without saying that interactivity should not be used for its own sake. Each interaction should be meaningful and productive, and this requires planning and preparation.

Try to involve the whole group in the interaction. Serial participation (one person interacting after another) is rarely the best option as it takes too long. It is better to design activities that can be undertaken in small groups or concurrently, using breakout rooms, chat or the whiteboard.

Application sharing

All web conferencing systems allow participants to share an application on their own desktop. They can also pass control of it to someone else.

This feature has a number of important uses:

  • You can view a document and edit the content dynamically.
  • You could create a rich picture, a mind map or a project plan then pass control from person to person to complete the task. Or you could set up individual breakout rooms in which participants can work on items on their own desktops, and present to or get help from the meeting leader where appropriate.
  • You can use application sharing as the basis for mentally rehearsing a change that involves involve technology, e.g. the embedding of modifications or introduction of a new IT system.
  • Presentations can be shared without being uploaded in advance into the web conferencing system’s own format. This ensures all the functionality of the original presentation is maintained.

The downside of application sharing is that it demands a fast broadband connection if it is not to appear jerky and disjointed.

Open the application before you need to use it. Have it open, logged in, and ready in another window.

Find out how much space participants will have on their screens to view applications on then size your window accordingly. Otherwise participants will have to scroll to see the whole application window.

Make sure you close all other applications, especially IM and email – you don’t want embarrassing pop-ups to appear in your meeting.

Web tours

Some systems also allow the facilitator to lead participants in exploring a particular web site, whether on the internet or an organisation’s intranet. This is useful in that it allows online content to be employed without it being uploaded into the system in the advance. This content could include animations and video, which are not normally available within uploaded slides. It could also include games, quizzes, questionnaires and other activities which participants can then undertake individually.

What next?

Part eight of this ten-part series is about managing group dynamics online, in order to keep everyone involved and on-track. We’ll post it in a couple of days time, so do please come back.

We’re hoping you will add your own ideas to these blog items too, so we can create of it something that is representative of the experience of a wide range of practitioners and helps us all to understand what works and what doesn’t.

We can’t go on meeting like this – Part 6 Design Your Meeting

Design your meeting, using the right combination of media

Establishing goals

The purpose of a meeting can be viewed on two different levels: the business outcomes that the meeting is designed to support and the modelling of corporate values about how people treat one another. If these are unclear, insincere or ill-remembered, then they need to be refreshed before the online meeting is designed. If you neglect to do this then you have no way of knowing whether an online meeting is an appropriate solution, what should be covered and what methods of interaction and recording should be used.

You can increase engagement and satisfaction by ensuring that the meeting is not just a passing of information that could be handed over better by asynchronous means such as email, memo or press release.

Your role as designer of the session is to select the most appropriate methods and media to meet the particular objectives. Often the best approach is to combine a live online meeting with those other asynchronous methods used before and after. It can be helpful to think of the meeting itself as a real-time event packaged with preparation and information sharing ahead of time and continued reflection and sharing afterwards.

Why does a meeting need designing?

Design is what you do to ensure that everything that should happen at a meeting, does happen. A meeting is an opportunity to let others know how we feel; our wants and needs, and what we are thinking. We are not all equally good at communicating those things, and most of us can improve our skills. We adapt our preferred styles of communication according to who we are meeting and what we’d like to achieve, for example pleading will need a different approach to interrogating, persuading, cajoling, disciplining etc. When we meet face-to-face there is always the possibility of misunderstanding. Fortunately a change of mood is easy to spot, and most of us have a good bag of tricks to help to put a relationship back on kilter. It may be more difficult to do this online because words, once spoken in public or written in black on white, are difficult ever to “unspeak”. That is why a clear agenda, a good structure and some clear “rules of engagement” are so useful. Active listening face-to-face is something you do with your eyes, your ears and through speech. Active listening online may need you to be even more sensitive to tone of voice and tolerant of cryptic and ambiguous instant text messages. As part of the design of a meeting, a leader must take account of the importance of these channels and make sure they are not restricted or abused.

What should a design include?

For an online meeting it may show not only the content, but also prompts or even an actual script that will tell the facilitator what to do and say to keep the meeting on track, make sure everyone participates, and to reach the goals that were set for it. Once you have found the most successful format for your online meetings, you can call upon a set of familiar tools and regular techniques that you know have worked to keep discussions on track, to allow everyone to contribute. The design will set the tone and culture for the meeting as democratic or controlling, competitive or collaborative etc. It can ensure a meeting is in harmony with the culture of the organisation.

Do you design the process as well as the content?

The agenda for a meeting does not usually explain how the meeting is to be run. Most commonly it shows the topics to be included, how much time is allocated to each and who will lead it. In the design of an online meeting you may also show how opinions will be shared and decisions will be made using the various markup and sharing tools that an online meeting includes.

It is normal to assign different roles to ensure an online meeting is successful. The facilitator will manage the content; the host will control the interactions; you may have a recorder to type notes as others are speaking and to be responsible for starting and saving the recording if it has been agreed to save and publish the meeting.

What are the key elements in planning a meeting?

There are many things to consider when planning a meeting, including the purpose, participants and announcement. It is a good idea to make sure your plan answers the basic question, “What do people need to bring away from the meeting?” In some cases this may be obvious, but in more complex situations the answer may invlolve collecting views of a number of different interested parties. Once the outcomes have been set, you can put together an agenda. It will normally include the issues to be aired, the methods of discussing each one, how much time allocated to it and the person who “owns” that item.

Structuring the session

Do not underestimate the need for introductions at the start of an online meeting.

For people who join early, and who are not practised with the online tool, provide a meaningful but none-too-challenging activity, for example a whiteboard activity, helping them to get used to the markup tools. Consider an ice-breaker e.g. a map that participants can markup with their location. Always display a welcome slide with the meeting title and objective, the start and finish times, and the leader’s name and photo.

Keep on hand a slide that shows a screen capture of the interface, with the important tools labelled. Present the ground rules, the outcomes and agenda. Put an activitiy in the design to stimulate the use of chat (the back channel) early in the proceedings so it becomes a background routine and non-invasive. Learn more about the backgrounds of participants through an interactive activity. Use lead-in questions or a poll to engage participants and establish the importance/relevance of the meeting topic to them.

Consider including a guest speaker or even a panel of experts.

Voice and live video

Non-verbal cues may be an important channel of communication at a conventional meeting. Do try to overcompensate for its ansence by turning an online meeting into a production number; it does not need to entertain and may not even need to inform. Nevertheless audio will be ever-present and must deliver the major part of your message. It is possible to communicate very successfully using sound as the principle medium, and without eye contact or visible non-verbal behaviour, as demonstrated by radio.

It is important to obtain the best possible audio quality, as this has an important effect on how participants perceive the quality of the meeting as a whole. Make sure you have a reliable broadband connection and use a good quality headset or mic.

Research shows that cognition is improved when a complex visual is explained by audio narration rather than by text. This is because the brain can easily pay attention to one auditory and one video channel, but struggles with two visual channels (the graphic and the text).

Images and text

Slides are not essential to every online meeting; after all, as we describe later on in this article, you also have the ability to share applications, tour web sites, carry out whiteboard activities and conduct polls – all of which can act as the primary visual focus. However, slides can be extremely useful both as visual aids and as signposts, as long as they are used properly, avoiding the risk of the dreaded ‘death by PowerPoint’.

Research shows that we can absorb and recall information better from words and pictures than from words alone, which is not surprising when you consider that the majority of our sensory input is visual. Pictures are powerful and they are memorable, but it does matter what pictures you use – different types of information require different types of visuals to convey meaning most clearly.

Consider some of the uses:

  • Photos of yourself and other speakers.
  • Diagrams to represent processes, principles, structures, layouts.
  • Photos to represent actual people, events, objects.
  • Photos/illustrations to represent abstract concepts.
  • Screen grabs to show software applications.
  • Charts to represent numeric data.

Text

Audio is likely to be the primary verbal channel, so don’t confuse the participant with a second verbal channel in the form of text on the screen. The participant won’t know whether to listen or read; and because they can do the latter much faster than the former, they’ll probably tune out what you’re saying). Use text on slides sparingly, for example:

  • An agenda.
  • Titles, which signpost the current topic.
  • Anything the participant might want to make a note of, such as terms, URLs, names or quotes.
  • Labels for diagrams, photos or charts.
  • Lists – bulleted or numbered. Note that when you are presenting items in a list, it is not good practice to show those items that you have yet to cover – reveal these in subsequent slides. And don’t be tempted to use your bullets as a script – as an online presenter, if you need a script you can have this in front of you in paper format, or in a separate window.

If you really do need to present a lot of text, distribute this as a separate document, or provide a link to materials to be read before or after the session.

Be careful when re-using slides which you normally use in a live presentation. Your slides are likely to be displayed in a smaller window and may degrade in quality when they are converted to the system’s own format. The best solution is to keep them simple and bold. You should also be prepared for the possibility that your transitions and animations will not be carried over. That means any builds will have to be displayed as a sequence across a number of cloned slides.

What next?

Part seven of this ten-part series is about making your meeting interactive, using the various devices and tools that are common to most web-conferencing software. We’ll talk about how to take advantage of these so that your meetings satisfy those who take part by allowing everyone to reach the planned outcomes. We’ll post it in a couple of days time, so do please come back.

We’re hoping you will add your own ideas to these blog items too, so we can create of it something that is representative of the experience of a wide range of practitioners and helps us all to understand what works and what doesn’t.